Kotch and colleagues found that several characteristics of the mothers education, depression, and whether the mother lived with her own mother at age 14 were the best predictors of an abuse or neglect report. The degree of social support available to parents, along with community attitudes about raising children and using punishment, can also contribute to the risk of child maltreatment.
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Most notably, the nucleus accumbens responds to dopamine when generating pleasure responses and reward cycles [ 2223 ]. If immediate danger exists, police need to temporarily remove the child from the home. For example, rates of child abuse and neglect have been associated with structural aspects of the neighborhood and community poverty, large number of children per adult resident, population turnover, and high concentrations of single-parent families Coulton et al.
Specifically, children with ADHD have an increased chance of substance use, with the increased likelihood ranging from 1.
Depression Several prospective studies have reported high rates of depression in abusing and neglecting parents Kotch et al. Similarly, the committee believes it is important to advance the field with respect to determining the causes of child abuse and neglect.
Social influences and familial influences are often present simultaneously. Certainty is not required. Income also affects the severity of abuse. Boys may also be more likely to engage in smoking to improve their social image, whereas girls more often do so as a form of stress relief [ 35 ].
To assess risk factors for their impact on the initiation of abuse and neglect, the analysis focused on parents who did not report any abuse or neglect in the first wave of the study but reported either physical abuse or neglect in the second wave.
The demands of caring for these children may overwhelm their parents. Associations between types of maltreatment and substance use during adolescence. Norms within an individual's peer group and community can contribute to the likelihood that violence will be viewed as an acceptable solution to difficulties within the family Straus et al.
Thus, these authors hypothesize a tentative generational loop in which harsh and abusive parenting increases the risk for higher child- and adolescent-level dissociation, which in turn increases the risk for impulsive behavior and harsh parenting of offspring. However, the complex interaction of multiple risk factors is not clearly understood, especially in conjunction with protective factors and with demographic characteristics.
Correlational studies can be informative regarding causes, for example, if they use statistical controls to examine spuriousness, particularly when they show that two variables thought to be related are no longer related once one controls for a third variable.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is defined by either sustained inattention, characterized in part by forgetfulness and distractedness, or ongoing hyperactivity-impulsivity [ 68 ].
Since the NRC report was published, minimal progress has been made in understanding the causes of child abuse and neglect, particularly compared with the substantial progress made in understanding the nature of the problem and its consequences discussed in the next chapter.
As Simkinsp. More than 10 years later, Ertem and colleagues systematically reviewed studies of the intergenerational transmission of child physical abuse that met two criteria: Research on maltreating parents found that they were more likely to use harsh discipline strategies and less likely to use positive parenting strategies such as time outs, reasoning, and recognizing and encouraging the child's successes.
The process of development of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system during adolescence increases the likelihood that behaviors initiated during this vulnerable period will have long-term effects and continue throughout the lifespan [ 1326 ].
The committee recognizes that not every study can be prospective and longitudinal. Development of the dopaminergic innervation in the prefrontal cortex of the rat.
Adolescent brain development and the risk for alcohol and other drug problems.Risk Factors of Child Abuse There are many issues that may contribute to child abuse, but some factors increase the risk to children and make them more vulnerable to abuse. They can be found in the background of parents, in the environmental situation and in attributes of the child themselves.
Substance abuse may be a contributing factor for between one-third and two-thirds of maltreated children in the child welfare system. The number and complexity of co-occurring family problems often make it difficult to understand the full impact of substance abuse on child maltreatment.
Early aggressive behavior, lack of parental supervision, academic problems, undiagnosed mental health problems, peer substance use, drug availability, poverty, peer rejection, and child abuse or neglect are risk factors associated with increased likelihood of youth substance use and abuse.
An overview of the possible effects and adverse consequences of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents For more information on the definitions of child abuse and neglect see What is Child Abuse and Neglect? Factors affecting the consequences of child abuse and neglect Risk factors that may contribute to.
Factors Contributing to Child Abuse and Neglect in the Home Understanding the factors that contribute to your problem will help you frame your own local analysis questions, determine good effectiveness measures, recognize key intervention points, and select appropriate responses.
Substance abuse may be a contributing factor for between one-third and two-thirds of maltreated children in the child welfare system. The number and complexity of co-occurring family problems often make it difficult to understand the full impact of substance abuse on child maltreatment.Download